General Awareness

ISRO Launches India’s Heaviest Rocket GSLV Mk-III (‘Baahubali’) For GSAT-29 Satellite Mission

It’s not any shocking news or something unbelievable as India’s space agency ISRO has been doing great things since long and the world is quite aware of their progress and extraordinary potential towards the space related missions. apart from that, towards the nation’s other matter ISRO is fully engaged with their missions for a long time and was doing good job to build the India’s Heaviest Rocket ever.

This week, India’s heaviest rocket, referred to as “Baahubali”, successfully placed the sophisticated communications satellite GSAT-29 in the orbit. India space agency ISRO’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk-III-D2) – on its second developmental flight – lifted off from Sriharikota, India’s rocket port in Andhra Pradesh on the coast of the Bay of Bengal.

 

The countdown began at 2:50 pm on Tuesday and the rocket was launched at its scheduled time of 5.08pm from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre.

Cyclone Gaja did not pay spoilsport and the launch was not affected by it. The launch could have been affected by the cyclone, which was one of the apprehensions since the countdown.

This is the 67th launch from Sriharikota and the GSAT-29 is the 33rd communications satellite made by India.

The advanced communications satellite weighs 3,423 kg and will help provide internet connectivity, especially in the remote areas of Jammu and Kashmir and north-eastern India, says ISRO chairman K Sivan.

The GSLV Mk- III weighs 641 tons, which is equal to the weight of five fully loaded passenger planes. At 43 meters tall, it is higher than a 13-storey building. Although it is the heaviest among India’s operational launch vehicles, it is also the shortest.

The rocket took 15 years to make and each launch is expected to cost an upwards of Rs. 300 crores.

As the launch has been successful, the GSLV Mk-III will be declared operational.

The GSLV Mk-III will be used to launch India’s Chandrayaan-2 early next year and Gaganyaan before 2022.

Things You Need To Know About GSLV Mark-III

 

The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV-III), also referred to as the Launch Vehicle Mark 3 (LVM3) is a three-stage medium-lift launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is designed to launch satellites into geostationary orbit, and is intended as a launch vehicle for crewed missions under the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme.The GSLV-III has a higher payload capacity than the similarly named GSLV.

After several delays and a sub-orbital test flight on 18 December 2014, ISRO successfully conducted the first orbital test launch of GSLV-III on 5 June 2017 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Andhra Pradesh.

In June 2018, the Union Cabinet approved ₹4,338 crore (US$600 million) to build 10 GSLV Mk-III rockets over a five-year period.

On 15 August 2018, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced in his Independence Day speech an Indian foray into human spaceflightin 2022 with the aim of sending a crewed spacecraft called Gaganyaan to low Earth orbit.The GSLV Mk III will be the launch vehicle for this mission.

Development

ISRO initially planned two launcher families, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle for low Earth orbit and polar launches and the larger Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle for payloads to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The vehicle was reconceptualised as a more powerful launcher as the ISRO mandate changed. This increase in size allowed the launch of heavier communication and multipurpose satellites, future interplanetary exploration and will be human rated to launch crewed missions. Development of the GSLV-III began in the early 2000s, with the first launch planned for 2009–2010.The unsuccessful launch of GSLV D3, due to a failure in the cryogenic upper stage,delayed the GSLV-III development program. The GSLV-III, while sharing a name with the GSLV, it features different systems and components.

Vehicle design

Artistic representation of GSLV-III in the Flight X configuration

The first stage consists of two S200 solid motors, also known as Large Solid Boosters (LSB) attached to the core stage. Each booster is 3.2 metres (10 ft) wide, 25 metres (82 ft) long, and carries 207 metric tons (456,000 lb) tonnes of propellant. The S200 booster uses an HTPB based propellant. It is the largest solid-fuel booster after the Space Shuttle SRBs and Ariane 5 SRBs. The flex nozzles can be vectored using electro-hydraulic actuators and are used for vehicle control during the initial ascent phase.These boosters burn for 130 seconds and produce an average thrust of 3,578.2 kilonewtons (804,400 lbf) and a peak thrust of 5,150 kilonewtons (1,160,000 lbf) each.

The second stage, designated L110, is a liquid-fueled stage that is 21 metres (69 ft) tall and 4 metres (13 ft) wide, and contains 110 metric tons (240,000 lb) of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (N
2O
4). It is powered by two Vikas 2 engines, each generating 766 kilonewtons (172,000 lbf) thrust, giving a total thrust of 1,532 kilonewtons (344,000 lbf). The L110 is the first Indian clustered liquid-fueled engine. The Vikas engines uses regenerative cooling, providing improved weight and specific impulse compared to earlier Indian rockets. Each Vikas engine can be individually gimbaled to control vehicle pitch, yaw and roll control. The L110 core stage ignites 114 seconds after liftoff and burns for 203 seconds.

The cryogenic upper stage, designated C25, is 4 metres (13 ft) in diameter and 13.5 metres (44 ft) long, and contains 28 metric tons (62,000 lb) of propellant LOX and LH2. It is powered by the CE-20 engine, producing 200 kN (45,000 lbf) of thrust. CE-20 is the first cryogenic engine developed by India which uses a gas generator, as compared to the staged combustion engines used in GSLV.

The payload fairing has a diameter of 5 metres (16 ft) and a payload volume of 110 cubic metres (3,900 cu ft).

he fairing is designed to protect the satellite from Earth’s atmosphere during the early stages of ascent, while also maintaining the aerodynamic characteristics of the rocket, but is no longer needed once it reaches space. At fairing separation, GSLV was at an altitude of 116 kilometers (72 miles, 62 nautical miles).

The spent second stage was jettisoned 3.1 seconds after it shut down at the end of its burn. After a further 2.42 seconds the third stage ignited. For the GSLV Mk.III the third stage is a C25, powered by a CE20 engine. This consumes cryogenic propellant – liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen – and made a single burn lasting eleven minutes and 7.26 seconds.

At third-stage burnout, GSLV was traveling at a velocity of 10.21 kilometers (6.34 miles) per second. Fifteen seconds later GSAT-29 separated from the rocket. The target orbit for spacecraft separation is 190 by 35,975 kilometers (118 by 22,354 miles, 103 by 19,425 nautical miles) inclined at 21.5 degrees to the equator. From this initial geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO), the satellite will make a series of burns with its liquid apogee motor in order to raise itself into geostationary orbit.

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