“Quantum Physics”, probably the most confusing but realistic theoretical approach to the fundamental consequences in a matter has changed the whole world. Things seems o be pretty much different when viewed from this quantum approach at microscopic level.
It is not a big thing to tell that almost whole pace inside an atom remains empty as these tiny electrons exists in limited numbers and the size of atom is quite large and big to compare. Here’s the deal. The size of an atom is governed by the average location of its electrons: how much space there is between the nucleus and the atom’s amorphous outer shell. Nuclei are around 100,000 times smaller than the atoms they’re housed in.
If the nucleus were the size of a peanut, the atom would be about the size of a baseball stadium. If we lost all the dead space inside our atoms, we would each be able to fit into a particle of dust, and the entire human race would fit into the volume of a sugar cube.
Energy! At a pretty basic level, we’re all made of atoms, which are made of electrons, protons, and neutrons. And at an even more basic, or perhaps the most basic level, those protons and neutrons, which hold the bulk of our mass, are made of a trio of fundamental particles called quarks. Symmetrically, the mass of these quarks accounts for just a tiny percent of the mass of the protons and neutrons. And gluons, which hold these quarks together, are completely massless. A lot of scientists think that almost all the mass of our bodies comes from the kinetic energy of the quarks and the binding energy of the gluons.
The idea of empty atoms huddling together, composing our bodies and buildings and trees might be a little confusing. If our atoms are mostly space, why can’t we pass through things like weird ghost people in a weird ghost world? Why don’t our cars fall through the road, through the center of the earth, and out the other side of the planet? Why don’t our hands glide through other hands when we give out high fives?
It’s time to reexamine what we mean by empty space. Because as it turns out, space is never truly empty. It’s actually full of a whole fistful of good stuff, including wave functions and invisible quantum fields.
You can think about the empty space in an atom as you might think about an electric fan with rotating blades. When the fan isn’t in motion, you can tell that a lot of what’s inside of that fan is empty space. You can safely stick your hand into the space between the blades and wiggle your fingers in the nothingness.
But when that fan is turned on it’s a different story. If you’re silly enough to shove your hand into that “empty space,” those blades will inevitably swing around and smack into it … relentlessly.
Technically electrons are point sources, which means they have no volume. But they do have something called a wave function occupying a nice chunk of the atom. And because quantum mechanics likes to be weird and confusing, the volumeless electron is somehow simultaneously everywhere in that chunk of space.
The behaviors of the electron does not allow for it to be observable as a particle and as a wave. The two sided nature of the electron is known as the Wave-Particle Duality: The property of particles behaving as waves and the property of waves behaving as particles as well as waves. Although the duality is not very effective in large matter. The wave characteristic of the electron implicates many of the electron’s particle behaviors.
Planck’s Hypothesis of the Quantum Theory states that energy is emitted in quanta, little packets of energy, instead of a continuous emission. He stated that energy emitted is related to the frequency of the light emitted. Planck’s hypothesis states that a quantum of energy was related to the frequency by his equation.
The electron cloud is not really a thing a electron cloud model is different from the older Bohr atomic model by Niels Bohr. Bohr talked about electrons orbiting the nucleus. Explaining the behavior of these electron “orbits” was a key issue in the development of quantum mechanics.
The electron cloud model says that we cannot know exactly where an electron is at any given time, but the electrons are more likely to be in specific areas. In the Bohr model, electrons were assigned to different shells. These shells explained the repeating patterns of chemical properties in the periodic table. Using quantum mechanics, chemists can use the electron cloud model to assign electrons to different atomic orbitals. These atomic orbitals are not all spheres. Atomic orbitals also explain the patterns in the periodic table.
The electron cloud model was developed in 1926 by Erwin Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg. The model is a way to help visualise the most probable position of electrons in an atom. The electron cloud model is currently the accepted model of an atom.