Life & Medical Science

What Is Zika Virus ? How To Prevent It ? – Zika Virus Detected In Jaipur

It’s definitely a worrying issue over the nation and even throughout the world that viruses and other bacteria related diseases are continuously on high to cause death of huge population.

Recently , Ten more people in Rajasthan’s Jaipur district have tested positive for Zika virus, taking the total number of such cases to 42, a Union Health Ministry official said Friday.

All the 10 cases were detected in the Shastri Nagar area of Jaipur.
The figures were issued by the Rajasthan Health department after a review meeting chaired by Additional Chief Secretary, Medical and Health, Veenu Gupta Friday.

“Thirty out of the 42 patients are now doing fine after treatment,” an official of the department said after the review meeting where the measures taken to contain the situation were discussed.

Most of the cases were detected in the Shastri nagar area, where fogging and other anti-larvae activities are being carried out to prevent the spread of the virus. The first case had surfaced on September 22.

The Zika virus, transmitted through Aedes aegypti mosquito, causes fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain. It is harmful to pregnant women, as it can lead to microcephaly, a condition in which a baby’s head is significantly smaller than expected, in newborn children.

In India, the first outbreak was reported in Ahmedabad in January 2017 and the second was reported in Tamil Nadu’s Krishnagiri district in July that year. Both these outbreaks were successfully contained.

WHAT IS ZIKA VIRUS 

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.

Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. From the 1960s to 1980s, rare sporadic cases of human infections were found across Africa and Asia, typically accompanied by mild illness.

The first recorded outbreak of Zika virus disease was reported from the Island of Yap (Federated States of Micronesia) in 2007. This was followed by a large outbreak of Zika virus infection in French Polynesia in 2013 and other countries and territories in the Pacific. In March 2015, Brazil reported a large outbreak of rash illness, soon identified as Zika virus infection, and in July 2015, found to be associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome.

In October 2015, Brazil reported an association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly. Outbreaks and evidence of transmission soon appeared throughout the Americas, Africa, and other regions of the world. To date, a total of 86 countries and territories have reported evidence of mosquito-transmitted Zika infection.

Signs and symptoms

The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of Zika virus disease is estimated to be 314 days. The majority of people infected with Zika virus do not develop symptoms. Symptoms are generally mild including fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache, and usually last for 27 days.

Transmission

Zika virus is primarily transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti, in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes mosquitoes usually bite during the day, peaking during early morning and late afternoon/evening. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

Zika virus is also transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy, through sexual contact, transfusion of blood and blood products, and organ transplantation.

Diagnosis

Infection with Zika virus may be suspected based on symptoms of persons living in or visiting areas with Zika virus transmission and/or Aedes mosquito vectors. A diagnosis of Zika virus infection can only be confirmed by laboratory tests of blood or other body fluids, such as urine or semen.

Treatment

There is no treatment available for Zika virus infection or its associated diseases.

Symptoms of Zika virus infection are usually mild. People with  symptoms such as fever, rash, or arthralgia should get plenty of rest, drink fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice.

Pregnant women living in areas with Zika transmission or who develop symptoms of Zika virus infection should seek medical attention for laboratory testing and other clinical care.

Prevention

Mosquito bites

Protection against mosquito bites during the day and early evening is a key measure to prevent Zika virus infection. Special attention should be given to prevention of mosquito bites among pregnant women, women of reproductive age, and young children.

Personal protection measures include wearing clothing (preferably light-coloured) that covers as much of the body as possible; using physical barriers such as window screens and closed doors and windows; and applying insect repellent to skin or clothing that contains DEET, IR3535 or icaridin according to the product label instructions.

Young children and pregnant women should sleep under mosquito nets if sleeping during the day or early evening.  Travellers and those living in affected areas should take the same basic precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquito bites.

Aedes mosquitoes breed in small collections of water around homes, schools, and work sites. It is important to eliminate these mosquito breeding sites, including: covering water storage containers, removing standing water in flower pots, and cleaning up trash and used tires. Community initiatives are essential to support local government and public health programs to reduce mosquito breeding sites.  Health authorities may also advise use of larvicides and insecticides to reduce mosquito populations and disease spread.

Transmission in pregnancy

Zika virus can be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy, resulting in microcephaly (smaller than normal head size) and other congenital malformations in the infant, collectively referred to as congenital Zika syndrome.

Microcephaly is caused by underlying abnormal brain development or loss of brain tissue. Child outcomes vary according to the extent of the brain damage.

Congenital Zika syndrome includes other malformations including limb contractures, high muscle tone, eye abnormalities, and hearing loss. The risk of congenital malformations following infection in pregnancy remains unknown; an estimated 5–15% of infants born to women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy have evidence of Zika-related complications. Congenital malformations occur following both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection.

On 22 March 2016, Reuters reported that Zika was isolated from a 2014 blood sample of an elderly man in Chittagong in Bangladesh as part of a retrospective study. Zika is also occurring in Tanzania as of 2016.

Between August and November 2016, 455 cases of Zika virus infection were confirmed in Singapore.

In 2017, Angola reported two cases of Zika fever.

SOURCE – WHO

 

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